10 Best Cheap Portable Air Conditioners Under $200 – Buyers Guide

best cheap portable air conditioner under $200

Selecting the best cheap portable air conditioner under $200 is not an easy task. It becomes more complicated when we do not have sufficient knowledge about air conditioners.

There are many sources available on the internet which guides us about air conditioners, but the majority of them do not guide us properly.

In fact, 90% of the sources (social media, blogs, videos, etc.) just write articles for their benefits without giving proper information.

Even though in some places we get good guidance for understanding the various types of portable air conditioners. It is okay up to here but the problem is they fail in recommending good and quality products.

Table of Contents show

Why should you trust us?

Here we guide and explain each and everything about portable AC because we meet the existing air conditioner users so that we can get the real information.

We do so because we are experts in the air conditioner, and we also meet the existing users and take their overall experience, reviews, feedback, and suggestions.

We also compare various available products and then finally recommend you the best portable AC unit under 200 dollars.

You can select any products from our recommendation because we consider every point relating to each product before recommending you.

Before jumping into the perfect list of the best cheap portable air conditioner under 200 dollars, let us know a little about its basics.

What is a Portable Air Conditioner (anyway)?

This type of air conditioner is moveable/portable in nature even though it needs some installation work such as:

  • Exhaust tube installation
  • Suitable power-point locating
  • Proper placement

Unlike window AC needs a trained technician for the installation, the portable air conditioner can be installed easily by following DIY instructions.

Why is it more beneficial?

surprising child

There are significant benefits of this type of air conditioner as compared to other verities of air conditioners like window, wall-mounted ACs, etc.

Let us explore some of the benefits of moveable ACs;

  • Restrictions free in the apartments
  • Lower maintenance cost
  • Requires less technical knowledge
  • Easily moveable
  • Advanced features
  • Require less space and easy installation
  • Affordable and cheaper price and more

Quick List – Cheap Portable Air Conditioners

Here is the list of our picked low priced and budget-friendly products which we recommend you on the basis of our in-depth research.



    Toolsmepire Portable Air Conditioner with Remote Control

    Evapolar EvaLIGHT Plus EV-1500 (Personal Evaporative Air Cooler)

    LeisureLife Portable Air Cooler Fan with Remote Control

    Toolsempire Air Conditioner Fan with Humidifier and LED Display

    DoubleFly Mini Space 2020 Portable Air Conditioner

    Arctic-Pro Digital Screen Oscillating Tower Fan with Remote Control

    Midea MAW05M1BWT Window Air Conditioner (5000 BTU)

    TCL 6W3ER1-A Window Air Conditioner (6000 BTU)

    Costway Compact Portable Air Conditioner with Fan Filter and Remote Control

    ZiCooler Portable AC with Ice Compartment & Remote (Low Energy Consumption)

    Air conditioners not only give us comfort in our day to day life but also serves as a good environment creator which makes the environment a good one where it is installed.

    Some of the cheap portable air conditioner under $200 which can change the condition of your room is given below

    10 Best Cheap Portable Air Conditioners Under $200 for 2021’s Summer

    • Toolsmepire Evaporative Air Cooler
    • Evapolar EvaLIGHT Plus
    • LeisureLife Portable Air Cooler
    • Toolsempire Portable Air Conditioner
    • DoubleFly Mini
    • Arctic-Pro Tower Fan
    • Midea MAW05M1BWT (5000 BTU)
    • TCL 6W3ER1-A (6000 BTU)
    • Costway Compact
    • ZiCooler Portable AC

    Lets dive to the worthy features for under 200 dollars.

    #1. Toolsmepire Portable AC with Remote Control

    toolsmepire cheap portable air cooler

    It is an air conditioner that comes with three in one function such as Air Cooler, Humidifier, and Fan. Apart from this, it has advanced functions like  3 speed and 3 modes which makes it very attractive.

    It is convenient to use because of its portable design which allows you to shift it anywhere according to your need. Unlike other ACs, it saves a lot of energy for you and it is also very clean.


    Remote controlAvailable
    Energy savingYes (Saves 65 Watt)
    Safety and cleaningBladeless and Easy cleaning
    ModesFunction and speed modes
    Timer7.5 hours
    Airflow215 CFM
    Water tankAvailable
    Air amplifierYes

    Here are some of the impressive features of this product are given below, lets take a look at this cheap portable air conditioner under 200.

    Air Cooler and Humidifier with Fan 3 in 1

    It comes with an 8-liter water tank, the cooler can be used as a humidifier as well as a fan. It gives wind streams along with water fume to chill off the room and raise moistness. The huge water tank will give you relief from the continuous substitution of ice cubes.

    Packed with 3 Speeds and 3 Modes

    It comes with 3speed settings to control the air cooler speed. Furthermore, it gives standard breeze, normal breeze, and rests wind to meet your various needs. Also, this air cooler can improve wind current in your room, reducing energy utilization and expenses.

    Convenient and Portable Design

    It consists of a 7.5-Hour Timer and controller which will enhance your opportunity. The inherent handle is intended for simple development. You can move it to use in some other territories of your home or office, the climate control system fan will bring you durable cooling at whenever and anyplace.

    Energy Saving and Eco-accommodating

    Evaporative Air Cooler does not have any blower and doesn’t utilize substance refrigerants, so it is more earth-accommodating and more advantageous. Besides, this 65 Watt unit saves you from a large cost.

    Bladeless Safety and Easy Cleaning

    If you are searching for a bladeless cooling arrangement, this evaporative air cooler will be an unavoidable decision. Consolidated with Bladeless Air Amplifier, the cooler gives a flood of smooth, restorative, and high-speed air, for individual cooling.

    • Movable
    • Less Energy
    • Easy cleaning
    • 3 in 1 Function
    • Remote Control
    • Lightweight
    • Medium price range

    Customer feedback

    This product is packed with power Fans, a Humidification cooler, and oscillating which is for everyone.

    This is because of its pricing as compared to its features. Only a few AC units are available at this pricing point with lots of goodies.

    #2. Evapolar EvaLight Plus EV-1500

    evapolar evalight plus cheap air cooler

    It is a very attractive and lightweight product that comes with a 3 in 1 cooling function. This product is very easy to set up as well as use. It is best for personal use.


    Freon FreeYes
    EnergyLow consumption usage
    Water tankRemoveable
    Leakage proofYes
    Health careAllergy free
    Warranty1 year
    Weight3.08 pounds

    Some of the cool features which this amazing and attractive product owns are.


    It is portable as it can be easily moved/carried from one place to another.

    3 in 1 Cooling function

    This product comes with a 3 in 1 function. It cools humidifies, purifies, and chills the air using evaporative technology. It is best for a dry climate.

    Personal Use 

    It is the best air conditioner for personal use. It cools the area of approximately (45 sq.ft) which is equivalent to the size of a coach or a bed.

    Easy to Install and Use

    EvaLIGHT is very easy to install and does not require any technical knowledge to install it. It is also very easy to use as it can even be used from a power bank.

    Leakage proof and Enlarged water tank 

    It comes with an enlarged water tank and it is completely waterproof.


    • Lightweight
    • Easy to install and easy to use
    • Attractive look
    • Leakage Proof
    • Saves Energy
    • 3 in 1 function


    • Not suitable for large apartments.
    • It is best for personal use.

    Customer feedback

    Nick Frenz says, from 2019 one the third part of my life is going to exploring different cities and places. This is the small AC which relief me from the hot weather. I never forget to leave this mini AC unit at my home.

    #3. Leisure Life Portable Air Cooler – Remote Control

    cheap Portable portable air Cooler Fans Leafless for Bedroom

    First thing first, this product is lased with tons of extra features that you can not imagine. Also, Leisure Life is the bran with knows for quality and performance.

    This is so cheaper if compare with these features. It comes with remote control, ultra air cooling, and a premium cooling fan along with the water tank.


    Remote controlAvailable
    Cooling fanPremium
    Water tankRemoveable
    Timer8 timers
    Modes3 modes, 3 speeds
    FunctionRefrigeration and Humidification

    Here are some of the impressive things that you will love in this cheaper air conditioning product. Additionally, this is perfect for everybody’s expectations.

    Multifunctional and flexible

    Its means it has lots of advantages like removable water tank, three different fan speed controlling system with timers and swing functionality.

    Wider angle for a better experience

    This flexible lightweight air cooler has the functionality to move around space. This can be move left and right with an automatic pendulum (up to 20°), and also moves up and down direction manually (up to 15°).

    Portable water tank for more convenient

    The tank of water has a removable cooling pad and is designed as a drawer-type water tank for efficiently cleaning.


    • Removable water tank
    • Cheaper than expectation
    • Lased with remote control
    • Leafless design
    • Suitable for any type of apartment


    • Only 20° wide angle
    • Single color availability
    • Suitable for the bedroom only
    • Not designed perfectly

    Customer feedback

    Maybe you know this brand is known to proving a better experience to their user. Accordingly, this product has lots of benefits and features that align with your desire and expectations.

    The wide-angle feature and ultra cooling effect like a premium portable air conditioning system will attract you more and more. So you are free to test the glances of this for a more comfortable cooling experience.

    Suitable for

    This cheap product is the best suitable for the bedroom. If you are looking for an affordable air conditioning system for your bedroom then you must check this out.

    #4. Toolsempire Air Conditioner Fan

    Toolsempire Air Conditioner Fan Air Conditioner Portable Fan

    It is one of the best products in this price segment which comes with features like 3 modes and 3 speed, Humidifier, and LED display. It is suitable for both home and office use.


    Remote controlAvailable
    LED displayYes
    InstallationSimple and easy
    Water tank8 liter
    Timer7.5 hours
    Modes3 speeds
    Quick coolingYes
    WheelsCaster wheels

    This product is loaded with multiple features that give ease to its customers. Some of the noticeable features include:

    Easy to move or carry

    This air conditioner is stacked with an in-built handle and universal wheel at the bottom with the help of which it can be easily moved from one room to another.

    3 Speeds and 3 Modes

    It comes with 3-speed settings to control the air cooler speed. Additionally, it gives standard wind, natural wind, and sleep wind to meet your various needs. Also, this air cooler reduces energy utilization and expenses.

    Quick cooling system

    This product is loaded with a powerful cooling system. All you need to so adds water to the sink, put the ice crystal box in the water, and press the cool mode to cool the room. 

    LED Display

    This air conditioner comes with an in-built LED Display which can accurately show the temperature.

    Remote Control

    This product also has a remote control and a 7.5-hour timer function. No matter you are in your study room or on the sofa or the bed you need not get up. You can just simply control it by remote.

    Large water tank 

    It comes with an 8L large water tank that gives you relief from changing the water frequently.


    • Fast cooling
    • Remote control
    • LED display


    • Average power consumption.
    • Medium price range.

    Customer feedback

    Dayna says (loyal customer of Home Depot), Dollar 200 is not a big deal for this product. Recently I have bought this multifunctional and smart AC from Home Depot, and it is working fine for the last 4 months.

    #5. DoubleFly Mini Space Portable Air Conditioner

    best portable air conditioner under 200

    This commodity is specially made for the workaholic type of people. The people who are working professional and work from home on a desk.

    This product has leveraged with outstanding features like a 3-speed controller, humidifier air purifier, and more.


    Air purifierAvailable
    Lightening effect7 colors
    Freon freeYes
    Energy efficientLow energy consumption
    Humidifier timeUp to 12 hours
    Modes3-speed modes
    Fast coolingYes

    Here are the deals of advantages that you can not ignore because only cooling the apartment is not everything of any premium or cheap portable air conditioners.

    Easily operate and space-saver

    This is so compact, mini-sized, and lightweight product which has a dimension of 5.3x6x7.28 inches. This is perfect for your home, office, and outdoor activities.

    Only you need to just plug a USB cable into this product and on the air cooler humidifier by pressing the function button.

    Low energy consumption

    This is the first thing that everybody should consider while purchasing air conditioning products like window-based, portable, split-system, or wall-mounted ACs.

    So we listed this here because it is a low energy consumption air conditioner as the equal power consumption of your light bulb and Alexa (I’m not joking).

    Quick cooling fan

    Most of the cheap ac brands do not include this much-needed feature. In this commodity, you can set the preferred wind power as you need in terms of season conditions.

    This personal air conditioner has the functionality to pull warm air from your room with the help of an evaporative water filter and humidifier.

    Non-FREON portable air conditioner

    This system does use any FREON (chemical compound), and it is much cheaper than a FREON air conditioner, which has been a huge disadvantage in terms of usability and convenience.


    • Compact design
    • Spray humidification design
    • LED atmosphere light
    • Low power consumption
    • Eco-friendly and FREON-free


    • Mini-sized product
    • Single color availability
    • Not for large room

    Customers feedback

    This product is made for flexibility and multi-space usage. This takes a few spaces for standing and placement.

    Comes with speed and adjustments to the airflows, seven different colors LED light for night usages like sleep or other stuff.

    Suitable for

    You should check out this if you looking for a mini and compact air conditioner humidifier that can be carried almost every places like for traveling, home, and office or outdoor activities.

    #6. Arctic-Pro Digital Screen Oscillating Tower Fan

    Arctic Pro Digital Screen Oscillating Tower Fan

    It is a very attractive product that is designed to give maximum satisfaction to its customers by its 80-degree oscillation. This product has a huge demand in the market.


    Remote controlAvailable
    Night modeYes
    Modes3-speed modes
    Oscillating80 degree
    Weight9.85 pounds

    It is a product that is loaded with many advanced features for giving satisfaction to the customers. It consists of the following:


    This advanced fan provides 80 degrees of oscillation so that even airflow is delivered over the entire room.

    Digital Screen

    This advanced fan is designed with an inbuilt digital screen to give ease to its customer while using it.

    Night Mode

    It also has advanced functions like Night Mode in it which gives you the option to turn off the screen at night even though the fan is in use.

    3 Speeds

    This portable tower fan also has a 3-speed function which creates suitable airflow according to the need.

    Remote Control 

    This product also supports Remote control which gives you the option to control the fan from your place, you do not need to come and manually change the fan speed.


    This product is very lightweight .you can shift the product anywhere according to your need.

    Less Space

    This product is designed in such a way that it consumes very little space. You can easily put it anywhere as it consumes very little space.


    • Digital Screen.
    • Less Weight.
    • Night Mode.
    • 3 Function.
    • 80 Degree Oscillation.
    • Remote Control.


    • Lightweight
    • Medium price range

    Customer feedback

    Zaden says this mini portable air conditioner cures my child. and I will suggest this for personal use because this is so small with lots of beneficial features.

    #7. Midea MAW05M1BWT – 5000 BTU

    MIDEA MAW05M1BWT Window air conditioner 5000 BTU

    It is an amazing product that comes in 5000 BTU with mechanical control. This product also has 7 temperature settings and 2 cooling and fan settings.


    Temperature7 temperature control
    BTU5000 BTUs
    Cooling fan2 cooling fans
    Washable filterYes
    Warranty1 year
    Floor area150 square ft.
    Fast coolingYes

    Following are some of the features which are owned by this product:

    Quick Cooling 

    This product is loaded with 5000 BTU which is capable of cooling a room up to 150 square feet quickly. You can feel the pleasure of coolness with this product as per your requirement. 

    Easy Installation

    You can easily install this product with minimum modification to the window frame. All mounting accessories are included with the product.

    Smooth Operation 

     This product comes with 7 temperature settings,2 cooling/ fan only speeds, and two-way air direction that provides you the perfect amount of cooling.

    Energy Efficient

    The Combined Energy Efficient Rate (CEFR) of the product reduces your energy cost.

    Washable Filter 

    The reusable and washable filter of this product reduces the bacteria and thus provides a healthier environment.


    • Smooth Operation
    • Quick Cooling
    • Healthy environment
    • Easy Operation
    • Cost-saving Air conditioner
    • Remote Control


    • Not portable
    • Medium price range

    Customer feedback

    No matter you are living in South Africa, Australia, or the united states, summer is summer for everybody. In order to relief from hot weather, you need to install a good air conditioner in your apartment.

    What a good, if a small portable air conditioner available under USD 200. This is the very best product that will cure your body in all summer season with 500 BTU capacity at a cheap price point.

    #8. TCL 6W3ER1 – 6000 BTU

    tcl portable air conditioner

    Under this price, this is one of the most demanding product, because it has a powerful BTU rating for quite fast and effecting cooling.

    This is a 6000 BTU portable air conditioner that can be easily cover rooms up to 250 square feet comes from the TCL brand.


    Remote controlAvailable
    BTU6000 BTUs
    FiltersWashable and reusable
    Washable filterYes
    Sleep timer24 hours
    Floor area250 square ft.
    DisplayLED display

    The benefits and advantages of this cheap portable ac unit may lead to forgetting others. So look at here for big advantages of this model in this price segment.

    Effective cooling with 6000 BTU

    There are only a few products are available with high BTU (British Thermal Unit) in most of the stores. Even only some of the brands brought this type of powerful air conditioner in this price range.

    The capacity of this TCL model with 6000 BTU rating product is up to 250 sq. ft. And this can be best suitable for bedrooms.

    LED Display with Remote Control

    This model has lashed with extraordinary features like an LED display for detailed instructions and a compact remote for controlling while sleeping on a bed or while doing any other activities from the distance.


    Washing and cleaning type of feature helps to reduce room odors, bacteria, and other airborne particles for a healthier environment.

    Auto Start

    This feature lets the unit restart and turn it back quickly if the power is lost and maintaining the same setting customization as previously.


    • Auto Start and Remote Control
    • 6000 BTU rating
    • Washable and reusable filters
    • LED display and Sleep timer
    • Trusted Brand with Best Customer Support


    • Not Lightweight
    • Missed energy saving rating

    Customer feedback

    In our view, this product is the best in quality and performance under the $200 price range. Also, this is packed with an LED display with remote control, washable and reusable filters, fast and effective cooling with 6000 BTU power.

    Suitable for

    This TCL air conditioner is the best suitable for medium-sized bedrooms (around 250 sq. ft) for the best cooling experience.

    #9. Costway Compact Portable Air Conditioner

    COSTWAY Air Cooler and Heater

    It is a compact air conditioner that is portable with Fan Filter, Humidifier, Ice crystal, Box Remote Control, Evaporative Cooler, and Heater which is suitable for Indoor, Office apartments, etc.


    Remote controlAvailable
    Air supplyWide-angle
    FunctionsHumidifier, Heater, Cooler, Fan and Air purifier
    Water tank7 liter
    Speeds3 mode
    Timer8 hours
    Ice compartmentCrystal box
    DisplayLCD display

    Some of the features of this amazing product include the following:

    5 in 1 Cooler and Heater 

    It is a multifunctional Cooler and Heater. It can be used in many ways such as Cooler, Heater, Humidifier, Fan, Air purifier. This product reduces the temperature by water evaporation and increases temperature by PTC heater.

    Cooling customization 

    It gives you the option of Cooling customization. With the help of its 8-hour timer, 3 fan modes, and speeds, swing feature you have a lot of available functions to get your comfort.

    Convenient and Portable Design

     You can move it to use in some other territories of your home or office easily with the help of its wheels attached at its bottom.

    LCD Display 

    The LCD Display of this product lets you see or select the options available on it such as speed mode etc.

    Remote Control

    You can control this air conditioner from far with the help of its remote. You  can have access to its multiple options through its remote which  will give you another level of satisfaction.


    • Movable
    • Remote Control
    • 5 in 1 Function.
    • Convenient
    • LCD Display


    • Lightweight
    • Medium price range

    Customer feedback

    Nicolas from Amazon says, under 200 dollars this can a good choice if some look for cooling the living or sleeping rooms. This will be so comfortable for this type of room area.

    #10. ZiCooler Portable Air Conditioner

    Portable Air Conditioner Quiet Evaporative Cooler

    This portable ac is built for low energy consumption with all needed and extra features for a dry climate. It can be used for both home and office.

    This cheap portable air conditioner under $200 comes with quiet evaporative cooler with ICE compartment.


    Remote controlAvailable
    Noise levelbelow 25 dB
    Power savingExtreme
    Water tank7 liter
    Ice compartment2 ice compartment
    Timer8 hours
    Area coverage125 square ft.
    DisplayLCD display

    This cheap portable air conditioner is loaded with the following features.

    Stops Dryness

    Are you staying in a dry climate? If yes, then this the best product for you under this price range. This product adds some moisture to the dry air with the help of its evaporative fan. 

    Child-safe Air Vents

    The tight safety net windshield gives you protection from your children’s hand getting stuck because of its safety net your children cannot get in.

    Remote Control

    It comes with the Remote Control function. The Remote of this product can word from a range of up to 6 meters.

    Wide-angle Air Supply

    This under dollar 200 portable air conditioner performs like One Man Army, because it is more enough for your apartment or guest room.

    It means it supplies air in different directions from left to right with only ≤50dB noise production.


    • Quiet Evaporative Cooler (Noise: ≤50dB)
    • Low Power Consumption
    • Dedicated ICE Compartment
    • Fan and Humidifier


    • Medium price range
    • Covers 125 square foot
    • 8-hour timing

    Customer feedback

    Under 200 dollars this is also a perfect pick for everyone for its impressive features like controlling with from the range of 6 meters, dedicated ice compartment, and air vents for child safety, etc.

    Suitable for

    This is best suitable for the guest room because it has the functionality of a wide-angle air supply which can be shared by multiple people.

    Buying Guide – Things to Consider For Cheap Portable Air Conditioners

    thinking man

    The following things/factors should be considered while choosing any type air conditioning products.

    This is because we will not make purchase decisions frequently because this not a simple buying decision. In fact, buying an AC is an extensive buying behavior.


    The first and foremost thing which we should consider while purchasing is the price of the air conditioner. We should select the product which fits in our budget.

    Movability or portability

    Movability or portability is also another important factor which we should keep in mind while making the purchase decision.

    Size or capacity of air conditioner

    The size of the air conditioner is a very important factor that should be remembered because it affects the performance of the air conditioner.

    BTU RequiredRoom Size
    5,000 BTU’s150 sq. ft.
    6,000 BTU’s250 sq. ft.
    7,000 BTU’s300 sq. ft.
    8,000 BTU’s350 sq. ft.
    9,000 BTU’s400 sq. ft.
    10,000 BTU’s450 sq. ft.
    12,000 BTU’s550 sq. ft.
    14,000 BTU’s700 sq. ft.
    18,000 BTU’s1000 sq. ft.
    21,000 BTU’s1200 sq. ft.
    23,000 BTU’s1400 sq. ft.
    25,000 BTU’s1600 sq. ft.
    28,000 BTU’s1900 sq. ft.
    36,000 BTU’s2700 sq. ft.
    The given chart will help you selecting the appropriate air conditioner according to your room size.

    Draining or maintenance cost

    Maintenance cost or draining cost is the cost that is incurred by the Air conditioner during its usage. Higher drainage costs or maintenance costs will result in an overall increase in the price. 

    Energy and power consumption

    Energy consumption refers to the consumption of energy/electricity of the air conditioner. This little thing can save you a lot of money if you think about it over the years.

    So you must consider this important thing while purchasing any type of commodity, not only air conditioners.

    Noise level

    The noise level refers to the dB (noise measurement decibels) of the air conditioners. The dB of the air conditioners differs at various types.

    Our Top Picks – Cheap Portable Air Conditioner under $200

    #1. MIDEA (5000 BTU)

    #2. DoubleFly Mini

    #3. TCL (6000 BTU)


    This research and feedback-based article consist of the high-end cheap portable air conditioner under $200 which is available on the globe.

    We have considered these things (fixed criteria) while selecting the best one:

    • Higher rating
    • Customer satisfaction
    • Positive experience
    • Better performance
    • Value for money
    • And all the most important things and aspects

    After evaluating the results we have listed all of the best ones to recommend to you as the top-rated portable air conditioner.

    Our ultimate goal is all around your satisfaction in terms of better product experience, worth for money, fewer complications, and more.

    FAQ – Cheap Portable Air Conditioner

    I experienced, most people spent a lot of time before making the final decision while purchasing these types of small portable air conditioners.

    To reducing these conflicts, we have covered these frequently asked questions. I hope this will help a lot during the selection of mini portable air conditioners.

    Is portable AC worth buying?

    Yes, because you will be able to move it according to your needs.

    Are these air conditioners energy efficient?

    Yes, the majority of them are energy efficient.

    How long do portable air conditioners last?

    It completely depends upon the maintenance. The more you maintain properly the more will it last.

    How loud are portable air conditioners?

    Noise levels for most portable air conditioners usually from 50 to 60 dB.

    Is a portable AC the same thing as an evaporative cooler?

    No, an evaporative cooler is a product that comes under the air conditioner. In simple, you can say it as a type of AC.

    What type of electricity do portable air conditioners use?

    This is totally based on BTU power rating, more BTU rating means more power consumption.

    Thank you for reading our in-depth guide on cheap portable air conditioners under $200 (aka dollars), and also for trusting our recommendation.

    To know more about us please take a look at our about page.

    Comment below for help related to this topic.

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